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Classification of Polygons in Maths


In our primary and secondary classes, we have learned different types of shapes. We know that the shape is the outline or the border of any object. A shape is made up of points, lines, curves, and angles. We have different types of shapes, such as triangle, square, cylinder, circle, etc. Based on the dimensions, the shapes are classified into two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional shapes. If a shape does not have a curve, then we can call it a polygon. It means a polygon is a shape that is made up of lines. 

The study of different shapes, their properties, formulas, construction of shapes is called geometry, which is one of the essential branches of Mathematics. Here, we are going to discuss the different classifications of polygons. Based on the number of sides, the polygons are classified into different types. Now, let us discuss in brief the types of polygons.

  • A polygon with least number of sides (three sides) is called a triangle.
  • A quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides.
  • If a polygon has five sides, then is called a pentagon
  • If a polygon has six sides, then it is called a hexagon
  • A polygon is called heptagon, if a shape has seven sides, etc.

Based on the measurement of the angles, the polygons are classified into different types, such as:

Convex Polygon: The convex polygon is a polygon, in which all the interior angles are strictly less than 180 degrees. Also, the vertices of the convex polygon should always be pointed outwards.

Concave Polygon: The concave polygon is exactly opposite to the convex polygon. If a polygon has at least one of its angles greater than 180 degrees, then it is called the concave polygon. Also, the vertex of the polygon should be pointed both inwards and outwards.

Apart from these classifications of a convex polygon, and concave polygon, it can further be distinguished into a regular and irregular convex and concave polygon. In general, a regular polygon has an equal measure of side lengths and interior angles. If the side lengths and the measurement of interior angles vary, then it is called an irregular polygon.

A quadrilateral is one of the types of the polygon, which involves different shapes in it. It has four sides, four vertices and four angles. The two basic vital properties of a quadrilateral are:

  • It should have four sides
  • The interior angles of a quadrilateral add up to 360 degrees.

We have six types of quadrilaterals, such as square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezium, rhombus and kite. All six types of quadrilaterals almost have the same properties, but they are distinguished by any one of the properties. For example, square and rectangle are quadrilaterals. Both square and rectangle have the same properties, such as:

  • All the angles are right angles.
  • The sum of the interior angles is equal to 360 degrees.

But, a property that distinguishes square and rectangle is that a square should have all of its sides equal, but in rectangle, the opposite sides are of equal lengths.

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